Packaging & Waste
Over 80% of the guest packaging sourced for McDonald’s restaurants was made of fiber sources. The remaining 20% was made of plastic.
In total, 80% of our guest packaging came from renewable, recycled or certified sources.
99.6% of our primary fiber-based guest packaging, was sourced from recycled or certified sources and supported deforestation-free supply chains.
We offered guests the opportunity to recycle packaging waste in over 25% of restaurants in our 30 largest markets.
Improving the sustainability of our packaging and moving toward a circular economy are top priorities for our business. These strategies support our long-term business resilience, help keep our communities clean, and aim to help protect the planet for future generations.
We realize the linear economic model, where we take, make and dispose of materials, can create waste that harms nature and impacts communities. That’s why we believe the future of materials needs to be circular wherever possible.
One of our biggest opportunity areas is our packaging. It plays an important role in reducing food waste and helping us serve hot and freshly prepared food quickly and safely to customers. But we know that when packaging and plastic waste aren’t recovered or recycled correctly, it can have a negative impact on our planet, creating litter and pollution.
There are systemic challenges that stand in the way of achieving a circular economy, but we want to invest and engage in strategic partnerships that advance circularity in our communities globally. As one of the world’s largest restaurant company, we believe not only that McDonald’s has a role to play in addressing this issue, but that we can use our scale to help transform packaging and waste systems across our industry.
We will use our global scale and reach to help implement and accelerate solutions to keep waste out of nature and valuable materials in use. To achieve this, we will design out waste and advance recovery and reuse of materials throughout our value chain, prioritizing areas where we can have the greatest impact, such as packaging.
Progress in Sustainable Packaging and Recycling
When it comes to our packaging, we look at all aspects of our footprint and beyond. It’s a process that encompasses a wide range of initiatives to reduce our use of packaging, switch to more sustainable materials and help our customers reuse and recycle too.
We’ve set goals to source 100% of our guest packaging from renewable, recycled or certified sources, and to recycle guest packaging in 100% of McDonald’s restaurants, by 20251.
We understand that recycling infrastructure, regulations and consumer behaviors vary from city to city and country to country, but we plan to be part of the solution and help influence powerful change.
- Eliminate packaging through design innovation, introducing reusable solutions and encouraging behavior change to reduce usage.
- Shift materials to 100% renewable, recycled or certified sources, and streamline the variety of materials used to enable easier recovery without compromising on quality and performance.
- Recover and recycle by finding ways to scale up systems to allow for greater acceptance of recycling, and making it easier for our guests to recycle too.
- Close the loop by using more recycled materials, including recycled plastic content, in our packaging, restaurants and facilities, and helping to drive global demand for recycled content.
The learnings and insights from this work also feed into other materials we use in our system, such as Happy Meal® toys, transport packaging and building materials.
Tackling Plastic Pollution
While our goals focus on all packaging, our plastics strategy specifically addresses how we are working to prevent plastic waste from ending up in nature.
We believe that some plastic packaging is necessary in the food industry to maintain quality and safety. Plastic has many benefits compared with other materials. For example, it’s lighter than glass and fiber, and therefore causes fewer CO2 emissions when transported. However, we know that when plastic is not recycled or recovered correctly, it creates plastic pollution, which is harmful to the environment, and we want to play our part in addressing this issue.
To improve capture rates and reduce the leakage of plastic waste into the environment, we are working to:
- Reduce plastic in guest packaging that is hard to recycle, is not needed for safety or functionality and is likely to leak into the environment, such as straws, plastic bags and cutlery.
- Prioritize innovation of new materials and redesign of plastic packaging to be more recyclable. We understand the importance of streamlining plastics in order to improve recycling rates. Our goal is to streamline material types and design packaging so that it’s easier for customers to recycle.
- Increase the amount of recycled plastic content used in all parts of our restaurants, where possible, to help drive demand for plastic recycling. For example, using recycled plastics in trays, Happy Meal toys and interior design elements of our restaurants.
- Partner with companies and nonprofit organizations to support the development and expansion of recycling programs for plastics.
- Partner with Franchisees to support community-level anti-litter initiatives such as consumer communication campaigns and cleanup days.
The COVID-19 pandemic has also highlighted the importance of food packaging and personal safety equipment, such as gloves and masks, which have been crucial to ensure the safety of our restaurant employees. We are mindful of short-term challenges, such as additional waste caused by disposable safety wear, as well as some increase in plastic use. Hygiene and safety are currently at the forefront of customers’ minds, and our challenge is to ensure they are balanced with long-term sustainability.
Visit our People Safety page to learn more about our commitment to safety.
Meeting Customer Expectations of Convenience, Safety and Sustainability
Together with our Franchisees, suppliers and industry partners, we invest in research and development of new materials and packaging designs, which fit our customers’ needs for convenience, food safety and sustainability.
In partnership with our packaging suppliers, we have a holistic process on product stewardship, which includes continuous evaluation and robust testing for chemicals used in our packaging. This helps ensure that we serve food in packaging that is both safe and functional for its intended use.
We eliminated a significant subset of PFAS, including Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), from all guest packaging globally in 2008. We also eliminated BPA/BPS and phthalates from our guest packaging in 2013 and in 2015, respectively.
As a next step in our product stewardship journey, we are committed to remove all added fluorinated compounds from our guest packaging materials globally by 20251. By the end of 2020, less than 7.5% of our guest packaging items globally still contained added fluorinated compounds. For these items, we continue our work to find and apply alternative coating materials that offer the right grease-resistant barriers.
McDonald’s packaging materials are also compliant with FDA, EU and all local regulatory bodies. We abide by all state, federal and national-level regulations, and verify through valid chemical testing.
Being good neighbors is important to McDonald’s, which is why we're always innovating to meet our customers where they are and making new commitments as our stewardship evolves.
One of the benefits of being a global company operating in more than 100 countries is our ability to test packaging and recycling concepts in different markets to find the sustainable solutions our customers want. By collecting customer feedback in our restaurants, we can identify the best solutions to accelerate and scale across multiple markets. For example, across the world we’ve been trialing paper straws in place of plastic ones and running straws-upon-request initiatives. During earlier trials, some customers had challenges with respect to the ease of use and durability of the straws, but following continued innovation, testing and learning, we have redesigned them to address these issues.
Minimizing Waste Behind the Counter
Behind the scenes in our kitchens and supply chain, we are working with suppliers to reduce, reuse and recycle. In restaurants around the world we recycle kitchen waste materials, such as cooking oils, organic waste and corrugated cardboard used in packaging, all of which can be turned into new resources.
In multiple markets, our logistics providers play a key role in our commitment to reduce waste by collecting and back-hauling recyclables when they deliver supplies to our restaurants. This not only helps recycle material from restaurants in remote locations, it also reduces road mileage because we no longer have to arrange for a separate waste company to make the collection.
Collaborating to Drive System Change
Addressing waste is not a challenge we can tackle alone. We are engaging with the wider business community, expert NGO partners, political stakeholders and academia, as well as our Franchisees, suppliers, customers and our restaurant crew, to help drive change at scale.
We support multi-stakeholder initiatives to advance research and innovation and to advocate for policies that support the transition to a circular economy. We are proud to be a Principal Member of ReSource: Plastic, World Wildlife Fund’s platform to leverage the power of business to stop the flow of plastic waste into nature. ReSource provides a critical hub to help companies collectively identify, measure and advance solutions at scale. Over the past year, we’ve shared our plastic footprint data with ReSource as part of a collective effort to find ways to reduce plastic pollution.
We are also members of the Foodservice Packaging Institute’s (FPI) Paper Recovery Alliance and Plastics Recovery Group (PRA/PRG), along with supply chain partners and other industry brands. These groups work collaboratively to increase the amount of foodservice packaging that is composted and recycled. Recent initiatives have included the creation of the Design Guide for Foodservice Plastics Recyclability with the Association of Plastic Recyclers, partnering with many communities to add foodservice packaging recovery to US households, and work with composters to accept foodservice packaging in their stream.
Helping Support the Sustainable Development Goals
Our packaging and recycling efforts help support the UN Sustainable Development Goals, a global agenda to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure prosperity for all, in particular:
We track progress against our goals through supplier and restaurant reports on packaging composition, usage and waste. We use robust digital reporting tools that are subject to internal and external audits.
As we continue to enhance our methodology and data quality in future years, we can expect annual progress figures to adjust in future reporting cycles.
By the end of 2020, we were approximately 80% of the way towards our goal to source all guest packaging from renewable, recycled or certified sources by 2025.
99.6% of our primary fiber-based guest packaging, was sourced from recycled or certified sources and supported deforestation-free supply chains.
By 2025, recycle guest packaging in 100% of McDonald’s restaurants. We understand that recycling infrastructure varies from city to city and country to country, but we plan to be part of the solution and help influence powerful change.1
By the end of 2020, we offered guests the opportunity to recycle packaging waste in over 25% of restaurants in our 30 largest markets.
In these restaurants, guest packaging is collected in customer-facing recycling bins, or collected for sorting and recycling back of house or off-site.
In regions where infrastructure is more robust, we see greater progress toward our goal. For example, on average, just under 70% of our restaurants in McDonald’s largest European markets are already providing recycling for guest packaging.
Achieving this goal will result in an approximately 90% reduction in the virgin fossil fuel based plastic used to make Happy Meal toys with every toy in a Happy Meal to be made using more materials from renewable, recycled, or certified sources2 by the end of 2025.
Over the past two years, markets like the UK, Ireland and France have rolled out new Happy Meal toy innovations already resulting in a 30% reduction in plastic use. We’re scaling these efforts globally to continue to reduce plastics from our System on our journey to design and innovate sustainably.
Material Innovation and Packaging Design
We are testing a range of new materials and designs in our restaurants around the world.
Cutting Down on Plastics
We have given our McFlurry® soft serve ice-cream packaging a makeover, eliminating the need for a separate plastic lid. The initiative has been implemented in Australia, New Zealand, India and most markets in Asia Pacific and Europe. In Europe alone, this change will save more than 1,200 metric tons of plastic per year.
In several markets across Europe and in Australia, New Zealand, Malaysia, India and Taiwan, we have also introduced a paper-based cup for shakes, moving away from the traditional plastic cups.
In France, we launched a 100% fiber Sundae cup to replace our plastic packaging while maintaining the iconic design. It is packaging innovations like these that we work to scale more widely across markets.
Introducing a New Strawless Lid
Across France, we have introduced an innovative new fiber lid made from certified sources for cold drinks, which replaces both the plastic lid and the need for a straw. We are encouraged by successful tests of this lid and while there are some obstacles to overcome, such as consumer acceptance of drinking from a new, less familiar material, the strawless lid could save 1,200 metric tons of plastic per year in France alone.
In China, McDonald’s has begun to phase out plastic straws for cold drinks in around 1,000 restaurants across Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Shenzhen. By introducing a new lid that customers can drink from directly, the move is expected to reduce 400 metric tons of plastic waste per year.
Additionally, in Latin America, as part of its strategy to reduce plastic consumption across the 20 markets in which it operates, our Franchisee, Arcos Dorados, has removed all lids and straws from cold drinks for dine-in customers.
We are deploying alternatives to plastic cutlery in several markets, including transitioning to wooden cutlery in Australia and Europe. This has led to a plastic reduction of 2585 metric tons. Trials are being conducted for paper alternatives to our spoons, in a bid to find the material that meets customer preferences, operational functionality and sustainability.
Piloting Reusable Cup Schemes
In 2020, we announced a global partnership with TerraCycle’s circular packaging service, Loop, to test a new reusable cup model for hot beverages. The initiative, which is currently being trialed across select McDonald’s restaurants in the U.K., will help customers enjoy their favorite McDonald’s hot drink in a reusable cup, cutting down on packaging waste.
This new partnership will allow customers to reduce waste by choosing a durable Loop-created cup, for a small deposit. The deposit can then be redeemed by returning the cup to participating restaurants to be safely sanitized through the Loop system and reused again in McDonald’s restaurants.
Exploring reusable packaging is part of our wider strategy to implement and accelerate circular solutions that keep waste out of nature and to shift to more sustainable packaging materials.
Through pilots in several markets including France, Philippines, South Korea and Malaysia, we are assessing the feasibility and impact of reusable solutions for our packaging that also maintain the highest safety standards and convenience for in-store and on-the-go consumption.
Finding a New Solution for Plastic Cutlery
We are testing alternatives to plastic cutlery in several markets, including transitioning to wooden cutlery in Australia and Europe, and testing paper alternatives to our McFlurry spoons, in a bid to find the material that meets customer preferences, operational functionality and sustainability.
In France we have transitioned our knives, forks and spoons to wood. These changes, paired with innovations in the packaging of milkshakes, salads and straws, will allow our restaurants in France to reduce plastic packaging by more than 2,600 metric tons.
Optimizing Packaging Weight and Size
We are continuously searching for ways to optimize packaging. For instance, McDonald’s Taiwan is gradually switching plastic packaging and cutlery to paper and wood and optimizing packaging design to reduce waste. McDonald’s Canada, meanwhile, has switched to napkins that are 20% smaller and produced with 100% recycled fiber. Across several markets in Latin America, Arcos Dorados has lightweighted spoons and replaced plastic packaging such as salad plates with non-plastic alternatives.
By switching to fiber wraps instead of card boxes, McDonald’s Netherlands has saved 250 metric tons of packaging, while in China, we have optimized the size of our cutlery and reduced the amount of plastic we use by about 10%.
We also have several packaging initiatives in test phases in the U.S., designed to reduce materials currently used to produce a range of products, such as sandwich clamshells and wraps, napkins, McCafé® hot and cold cups, and plastic car cups.
In 2018, McDonald’s U.S. joined forces with Starbucks and Closed Loop Partners as a convening member of the NextGen Consortium, a multi-year consortium that aims to address single-use food packaging waste globally. NextGen Cup is the first initiative by the NextGen Consortium, which aims to advance recoverable solutions for the fiber, hot and cold, to-go cup system. The NextGen Cup Challenge identified 12 innovative solutions for single-use cups that are functional to a high standard, minimize and streamline material use, and encourage wide recoverability.
While we work on vetting and testing these cup solutions for potential use in the McDonald’s system, the NextGen Consortium is continuing to expand its work to explore the viability of reusable cup systems, and improve and increase recycling acceptance of both the fiber and polypropylene cups through working directly with cities in the U.S., as well as through membership in The Recycling Partnership’s Polypropylene Coalition.
The leadership exhibited by McDonald’s and other NextGen Consortium Partners demonstrates their commitment to solving a critical global waste issue and accelerating change together. Collaboration is critical if we are to innovate, test and scale the sustainable cup solutions of our future.
Bridget Croke, Managing Director, Closed Loop Partners
Transforming Our Happy Meal Toys
For more than four decades, the McDonald’s Happy Meal has lived up to its name, bringing joy to children and families around the globe. Our customers who love the Happy Meal for the kids in their lives today also care deeply about the environment that this next generation will grow up in tomorrow.
With fun and safety still front and center, our ambition is to drastically reduce plastics and offer sustainable Happy Meal toys2 globally by the end of 2025.
This transition to more renewable, recycled or certified materials for toys is already underway and will result in an approximately 90% reduction in virgin fossil-fuel based plastic use against a 2018 baseline– nearly the equivalent of the population of Washington, D.C., eliminating plastics from their lives for a year.
In 2020, McDonald’s also stopped manufacturing toys with batteries or electronic components, reducing waste and improving the carbon footprint of our toys.
In addition to these efforts, beginning in 2018, McDonald’s Japan initiated a toy recycling program with the Japanese Ministry of the Environment to collect plastic Happy Meal toys and convert them into restaurant serving trays. In the first year, McDonald’s Japan collected around 1.27 million used plastic toys that were turned into over 165,000 trays. In 2019, we expanded the program and collected 3.4 million used plastic toys, followed by about 3 million toys in 2020.
Recovering and Recycling Our Packaging
Recycling shouldn’t be a chore, which is why we want to make it easier for our guests. We have installed sorting and recycling points in select restaurants across our top markets and are implementing improved recycling bin signage to make the recycling process easier to understand.
In Germany, Austria, Czech Republic and Slovakia, our crew collects customer waste to sort for recycling, while in the Netherlands, we take the process off-site completely, sending customer waste to an innovative waste sorting facility.
While we design our packaging to be recyclable, recycling infrastructure varies from market to market. In some markets, we partner with municipalities, waste collectors and processors to find recycling opportunities for valuable parts of our customer waste, like plastics, clean paper, cups or bottles.
Keeping Communities Clean
Our restaurant crews across the world work to keep their communities clear of litter by means of regular clean-ups in the perimeter around our stores. In 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic prevented us from organizing large clean-up events. Instead, our owners, operators and restaurant teams worked to prevent and clean up litter in other creative ways.
- McDonald’s Germany used social media to raise awareness and encourage customers to dispose of packaging waste correctly. “Social distancing? Not for the trashbin!”
- In the Netherlands, we increased customer awareness and reduced litter through the mass-media campaign “You Bin It You Win It,” awarding prizes to customers who disposed of their waste correctly. This campaign was followed by a series of others, such as the Trashdance challenge, all incentivizing customers to use trashbins and clean up litter.
- McDonald’s Russia organized cleanups and eco lessons in over 50 cities in September and October 2020.
We also support national organizations that aim to end littering and promote recycling in communities across their countries. For example, in the U.S., McDonald’s is a long-standing supporter of Keep America Beautiful, helping to advance their work to end littering, improve recycling, and beautify local communities across the country.
Closing the Loop
We intend to expand our use of recycled materials in our restaurants, packaging and supply chains to play our role in creating market demand for recycled content. That’s why in multiple markets we’ve incorporated recycled content in both fiber and plastic packaging, such as our coffee, frappe and sundae cups.
We also always look to close the loop where we can, buying back our own recycled materials to produce new packaging, fuel, clothing or furniture.
Reusing Cooking Oil From Fries to Fuel Our Trucks
Our cooking oil is a valuable resource, even after it’s been used to cook our famous French Fries. That’s why we collect and recycle used cooking oil (UCO) into biofuel across the globe. In some markets, we are taking these efforts a step further with our logistics partners HAVI and Martin Brower. In Switzerland, Ireland and the Netherlands for example, we use our own UCO to fuel our delivery trucks with renewable and bio diesels, creating value out of waste while cutting down carbon emissions from logistics.
In the UAE in 2020, McDonald’s passed a major milestone when its suppliers’ fleet of logistics trucks travelled approximately 10 million miles running on 100% recycled vegetable oil from McDonald’s UAE restaurants through the biodiesel initiative.
In the UK, we work to close the loop on organic waste as well. Food waste from stores is collected and converted into gas and electricity, some of which is supplied to the neighbouring Arla dairy. The dairy supplies all of McDonald’s organic milk, which is delivered in Martin Brower’s biodiesel-fuelled trucks, and so the circle continues.
In France, we currently have our LOGRE system pilot, which collects organic waste and converts it into renewable natural gas for the public gas network. This fuel then powers our LoGRE BioCNG trucks, closing the loop.
Recycling Coffee Waste to Make Cars
In North America, we have partnered with the Ford Motor Company to recycle coffee chaff – the husk of the coffee bean that peels off during roasting. The recycled chaff is heated and the residue mixed with other materials, before being molded into headlamp housings. Turning the coffee chaff into residue enables Ford to produce components that are 20% lighter than the traditional material and also require up to 25% less energy to produce. The use of coffee chaff as a resource shows how companies can work together to increase participation in the closed-loop economy.
Recycling Ocean Plastic Waste
Since 2018, McDonald’s Norway has been working in partnership with a small group that makes plastic pellets from the waste marine waste collected by fishermen along the Nordland coast. The group creates products out of the marine plastic, like sunglasses, shoes and now, 100% recycled trays for all McDonald’s Norway restaurants.
In 2020 we opened our 1000th restaurant in Australia, which we used to test and roll out multiple circular initiatives, including a circular Playplace® which repurposed old pay equipment into new decks, climbers, slide tubes, and window panels. 60% of the entire structure is sourced from old play equipment, which the remaining 40% of material being fully recycleable.
1 Packaging: Scope: Inclusive of centrally managed guest packaging and Happy Meal book and toy packaging. Renewable sources refer to material that is composed of biomass from a living source and that can be continually replenished. Renewable applies to plastics only, not fiber. Source: ISO 14021:2016, for plastic, ASTM 6866 or ISO 16620-2. Recycled sources refer to material that has been reprocessed from recovered (reclaimed) material by means of a manufacturing process and made into a final product or into a component for incorporation into a product. Recycled material applies to plastics and fiber. Fiber-based packaging made from 100% recycled sources must be third-party verified, unless certified under a Chain of Custody forest management standard. Source: ISO 14021:2016. Third party verification means that an independent accredited organization has reviewed the manufacturing process of a product and has determined that the final product complies with standards for the attributed claim. Credible third parties include professional auditing and certification bodies. Certified sources refer to suppliers of primary fiber-based packaging to the McDonald’s System which comply with the Forest management and Chain of Custody certification requirements set out by one of the following schemes: Forest Stewardship Council™ (FSC®); Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFCTM) or PEFC endorsed national systems including, for example, Sustainable Forestry Initiative® (SFI®), CSA Group (Canada), and Cerflor (Brazil). McDonald’s requires all wood fiber sourced from Argentina, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Russia, and Vietnam to be Forest Stewardship Council® (FSC®) Certified or FSC Controlled Wood sources with full chain of custody certification. Primary fiber-based guest packaging refers to products that are used to package guest food on premises at McDonald’s restaurants. This type of packaging includes containers, cups, wraps, bags for food, beverages, napkins, folding cartons, clamshells, wraps, food service bags, napkins, salad bowls, Happy Meal cartons, drink carriers and cup carriers. Perfluorinated compounds are known to be historically persistent in the environment. McDonald’s commits to not intentionally adding fluorinated compounds through our processes, but fluorinated compounds present in the local environment make it difficult to remove all traces of fluorine from packaging. Please refer to Our Conserving Forest Page for additional definitions. Exclusions: Primary fiber-based packaging in food packaged off-site McDonald’s restaurants; wood stirrers and cutlery, tray liners, straws and limited locally sourced items.
2Toys: Scope: Inclusive of all toys. Fiber-based toys or fiber components in the toys: 100% certified fiber required. All other materials: McDonald’s ambition is to reduce the use of virgin fossil fuel based plastics, offer sustainable toys by the end of 2025 and not manufacture electronics and batteries in Happy Meal toys globally. For bio- and plant-based plastics to be considered sustainable for McDonald’s, a minimum of 60% of plastic weight is required to come from recycled or renewable content or a combination of recycled and renewable content, though in many practical applications we anticipate that percentage will be much higher. The remaining 40% may be conventional fossil-fuel based material. These thresholds were developed in conjunction with input from NGOs, external manufacturing partners, and scientists, and based on an assessment of sustainable toy and packaging industry leaders so that our targets reflected current sustainable engineering capabilities to maintain safety and functionality. Our efforts will result in an approximate 90% reduction in virgin fossil-fuel based plastic use against a 2018 baseline. Virgin fossil-fuel based plastics/Conventional/Traditional Plastic: plastics made from fossil fuel feedstock. Renewable sources refer to material that is composed of biomass from a living source and that can be continually replenished. Renewable applies to plastics only, not fiber. Source: ISO 14021:2016, for plastic, ASTM 6866 or ISO 16620-2. Recycled sources refer to material that has been reprocessed from recovered (reclaimed) material by means of a manufacturing process and made into a final product or into a component for incorporation into a product. Recycled material applies to plastics and fiber. Fiber-based packaging made from 100% recycled sources must be third-party verified, unless certified under a Chain of Custody forest management standard. Source: ISO 14021:2016. Certified sources refer to suppliers of primary fiber-based packaging and toys to the McDonald’s System which comply with the Forest management and Chain of Custody certification requirements set out by one of the following schemes: Forest Stewardship Council™ (FSC®); Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFCTM) or PEFC endorsed national systems including, for example, Sustainable Forestry Initiative® (SFI®), CSA Group (Canada), and Cerflor (Brazil). McDonald’s requires all wood fiber sourced from Argentina, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Russia, and Vietnam to be Forest Stewardship Council® (FSC®) Certified or FSC Controlled Wood sources with full chain of custody certification. The thresholds described above do not include the presence of adhesives, glues, inks, paints and coatings.
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